Glossary Of Landscape & Landscape Design Terms (2023)

You are working with a great landscape designer or landscape architect (hopefully us) . Like all specialists your designer is proficient in the jargon of the trade- and sometimes doesn’t even realize they are using it.

The terms below are commonly used in the landscape industry here in the Pacific Northwest. Feel free to use this list to ensure you understand your designer or to impress them with your expertise.

- A -

Aeration, Aerator- The process of changing soil so more oxygen can enter, usually by using an aerator, which is a machine that pulls cores from the ground. In Portland we will normally be discussing aerating a lawn that is having trouble taking in soil and water. When should you aerate a lawn? Answer here.

Aggregate- Fractured or rounded stone used as a footing, sub-base, or decorative surface. The most common aggregates in Portland landscapes are 1/4”- gravel and pea gravel. Learn more about types of aggregates here.

Annual- A plant that flowers and dies in one season (think pansies). You would normally purchase an annual just as it begins to flower and then remove it once it is done, or perhaps as seeds. We very rarely include annuals in our landscape designs, preferring perennials.

Arbor - A garden structure generally used to support climbing plants or vines. They can be part of a fence, gate, or free standing.

Arborist - Basically a tree doctor that is trained in the care and maintenance of trees. The City of Portland has a good guide to working with an arborist, and these are the “tree guys” we trust.

Accent Plants - Plants that provide interest and generally stand out in the landscape due to their color, texture, and/or blooms. They do not set the structure of the garden and primarily serve aesthetic goals. My favorite accent plants right now are Quicksilver Hebe and Coneflower.

Access - A way to approach an area or garden feature. The concept of “access” can be practical: providing access for maintenance. Or it can be a matter of aesthetics: making access welcoming so you are drawn toward a garden destination.

Aesthetics -Very subjective, this is the perception of beauty or attractiveness of a garden space or design. No matter how practical a garden needs to be it also needs to meet a certain threshold of aesthetics. “Aesthetic” may also be used to describe a chosen style or look for the landscape.

Allee - A walkway bordered with trees, bamboo, or hedges. Generally a formal feature meant to emphasize the approach to a main entrance feature.

Amend - Adding beneficial organic material to your garden’s native soil to improve it for plants. Usually this is done by mixing in some compost as we install plants.

- B -

Backfill- Gravel or dirt used to fill behind a retaining wall or other landscape feature.

Backflow Prevention Device - Valve required by the City of PDX to prevent water in your irrigation system from being siphoned back into the water supply.

Balance -A design concept, where elements in the landscape are in “balance” with one another. The size, orientation, and perceived mass of elements all play a role. This is highly subjective.

Balled and burlapped- Field dug tree with the root ball wrapped in burlap. Often abbreviated to “B&B” in the trade.

Basalt - (as it relates to landscaping in Portland) The most common type of landscape and masonry stone. Boulders from the Columbia River Gorge and other local quarries are usually basalt. The most common basalt is gray, but black basalt and basalt with brown tones is also available.

Basin - An enclosed area of water. When discussing water features the basin may be the water receptacle below ground or the pot or vessel that water spills out of.

Bubbler- A style of water feature with a large drilled stone usually serving as the centerpiece.

Boulder - Large stone. In general a stone over 125 lbs would qualify as a boulder. More about the proper way to set boulders is here.

- C -

Cascade- Where water in a stream or vessel hits a point of vertical drop. The height and width of a cascade are major factors in the amount of noise generated by a water feature.

Catch basin- A below grade vessel for collecting surface water and then directing it into a drain line or dry well. Also, an area where water pools before falling over the next cascade.

Clump - Group of trees, shrubs, bamboo, or ornamental grass planted together to form a grouping.

Compost - Decomposed garden or food material, used in planting beds to amend from above and hold moisture where it is needed.

Concept Plan -During the landscape design process, this is a basic drawing or plan containing the key details of the garden plan, without adding excessive details or full plantings so the basic footprint of key elements can be understood. Examples of plans from Ross NW Watergardens’ designer are here.

Conifer - Tree that bears cones and needle-like or scale-like leaves that are typically evergreen. Pine, cedar, hemlock, redwood, fir, cypress, juniper, spruce, and arborvitae are common conifers in the PNW.

Contour - Purposeful change in ground elevations or grade. These may take the form of a mound, swale, or combination of the two.

Contrast - Differences in tone, texture, mass, or color between landscape design elements. Plant combinations or pairings often highlight these differences so that each plant can shine.

Course- A horizontal row or tier of stone, paver, or wood in a wall , patio, or landscape screen.

Courtyard garden -A garden mostly or completely surrounded by walls or buildings, perhaps at the entry to a building or meant to viewed from key windows.

Curbing- A border or edging using poured concrete or natural stone.

– D –

Deciduous - A tree or bush (shrub) that loses its leaves in winter. In the PNW there are semi-deciduous or semi-evergreen plants that may lose their leaves depending on how cold the winter is. Abelia and some hebe are good examples.

Deck -A flat gathering space, made of wood or composite material (made to look like wood), typically adjacent or attached to a structure. A deck usually sits above grade, a patio would generally be at grade.

Decking - Materials the surface of a deck is made out of. Cedar, ipe, juniper, and composite are the most common decking materials in Portland. Some excellent decking contractors are recommended here.

(Video) Landscape Design Terminology

Decorative rock- Rocks chosen for their color or texture and used as a ground cover, walking surface, or focal point. Black beach pebbles, pea gravel, and granite are the most common choices in Portland landscape designs. A wide selection of decorative rock can be found at Smith Rock, Inc and Oregon Decorative Rock.

Decomposed Granite - Granite that is weathered to the point that it is a very fine aggregate. This is a natural process, and the result can be used for paths and patios. Decomposed granite is often referred to as DG. It is especially useful in modern landscapes.

Design Elements - Key landscape features being proposed in a landscape design plan. Water features, paths, patios, decks, boulders, plantings, screens, fences, and contouring are just some of the common design elements.

Design Objectives - Goals that the client has for the new landscape. These goals guide the design process, not the designer’s style or preferences. Common design objectives in Portland are low maintenance, drought tolerant, and animal friendly.

Dethatch - Process for removing or thinning the dead lower level of a mature lawn. Thatch is grass that has died and collected below the green blades. Some thatch is normal and healthy. However, over time this layer can get very thick and make it difficult for water, sun, and nutrients to get to portions of the turf.

Drainage- The process of collecting and controlling the flow of water on a property. This can be done with grading, French drains, dry wells, permeable surfaces, sump pump, rain gardens, and more. Often multiple methods are required since Portland gets so much rain. Properties at the bottom of hills, with natural springs, or full of heavy clay have the most drainage problems.

Drip irrigation- A slow feeding irrigation system that utilizes flexible tubing and emitters to send a precise amount of water to each plant. This is the most efficient method of irrigating plants.

Drought Tolerance - The ability of a plant to survive without much summer water. There are many plants that are “drought tolerant” but most will be happier with at least some summer water, and all will need some water the first couple of summers.

Dry Garden - A garden feature where water is represented by an aggregate stone product, usually a gravel or granite. These are most commonly found in modern and Japanese garden design.

Dry-laid- A stone or flagstone patio, path, or walkway built without a concrete base. The base would be compacted gravel and the joints would be an aggregate or walkable ground cover. Dry laid stone work is more rustic and will become somewhat uneven over time.

Dry-stacked- A stone retaining or free standing wall built without the use of mortar. A highly skilled mason is required for a dry stack stone wall. Most walls in Portland are not dry stacked, even if they appear to be.

Dry Well - An underground structure that collect water and allows it to slow percolate into the soil around it. Dry wells can be installed in the landscape so that roof or rainwater is not sent into Portland’s water treatment system.

– E –

Ecological:Landscape design that is compatible with a sites’ environment in both appearance and sustainability without negative impacts to the environment.

Edging:Edging in the landscape is a line of demarcation that creates visual interest in the garden by separating one segment from another segment. This can be aesthetic or functional, keeping one element (such as pea gravel) from getting mixed into another (like bark dust).

Enclosure:In a landscape design, to fence or wall an area in. Areas can also have a feeling of “enclosure” provided by trees, other plantings, fences, or screens.

Entry Garden:The landscape near the entry to a building.

Espalier:A tree, shrub or vine, trained to grow on a wall or fence into a specific pattern. Especially useful for fruit trees, making it easy to harvest the fruit and containing mess.

Evergreen: A plant whose leaves or needles are green year-round.

Exotic:A plant that is not native to the location where it will be planted. Not all “exotics” are invasive or harmful, and many can be well behaved or drought tolerant.

– F –

Fernery:A mass planting of ferns.

Fescue: Thicker bladed turf grass that spread via rhizomes.

Final grade: The level of soil on your property before bark dust or compost is spread.

Fixture (Low Voltage Lighting): The lighting elements of a landscape lighting system. Primary fixtures types are spot lights, path lights, well lights, and underwater lights.

Flagstone: Generic term used to describe natural flat stones of different shapes and colors used to create walkways, patios, and walls. Flagstone is usually larger than stepping stones.

Float valve: A valve that will automatically refill your water feature when the water falls below a certain level. These are usually connected to your irrigation system.

Flow control valve: Usually a ball or gate valve that gives you control over the flow of water coming from your pump to your water feature.

Focal Point:The element in a landscape design or area in a landscape that is meant to be most prominent. The focal point can be a plant, boulder, statuary, gathering space, or other landscape feature.

Formal:A style of gardens or garden elements that stress straight lines, right angles and circles.

Foundation Plantings:Bushes or shrubs located in beds near the foundation of a home or other structure.

French Drain: A trench filled with 2” round rock containing a perforated pipe that collects and redirects surface water and groundwater away from an area, many times to a dry well.

Function:The purpose, reason, or action that an area is be landscaped for. Stairs function, for example, to allow foot traffic up and down a slope.

– G –

Garden:Space for growing plants for viewing, eating, or physical activity.

Gazebo:A roofed building used over an outdoor gathering space.

Germination: The sprouting of a seed, perhaps referring to a lawn that is being grown from seed.

Grading: Changing the level of soil for better drainage or to create interest or function.

(Video) Landscape Architecture Design Glossary

Gravel: Rock product, either rounded or fractured, that is relatively small- usually 1” or less.

Groundcover:Low plants that are allowed or encouraged to spread over an area.

– H –

Hardscape:Can refer to any “hard” garden elements including statuary or boulders but most commonly is used to refer to paths, patios, and walls.

Head: Height difference between the level of water in a pond (or the level of the pump if it sits outside the pond) and the upper outlet of water which impacts performance of the water pump in gph (gallons per hour).

Hedge:Dense shrubs or trees that form a fence, screen, or boundary.

Herbaceous:Plants with non-woody stems.

Herbicide: A chemical used to control weeds.

Horizontal Slats: Fence boards that run horizontally, often used in modern or Japanese-inspired landscape designs.

– I –

Imaginary Lines:Lines that define spaces within a landscape concept. These often extend from corners or key features of an existing structure. Proper use of imaginary lines can help the landscape feel connected to the home and other elements.

Informal:The opposite of formal in the landscape. A more relaxed garden dominated by curved rather than straight bed lines and a less rigid structure. Traditional PNW landscapes are informal.

Invasive Plant: A plant that spreads more than desired, or into habitats where it does damage. Portland has a list of invasive plants that should not be installed in landscapes because they can spread to forests or waterways and be difficult to control.

Irrigation: Watering plants and lawn, usually with an irrigation or sprinkler system. Smart irrigation controller reviews and recommendations here.

Irrigation /Sprinkler Plan:2-D rendering of the proposed irrigation system. Can include head placements and coverage, pipe sizing, GPM specs, and materials needed to install this system. An irrigation plan is usually unnecessary for residential properties but is common for commercial projects.

– J –

– K –

– L –

Landscape Architect:Licensed professional who designs landscapes, schooled in engineering and architecture as well as in horticulture.

Landscape Design: The art or practice of planning (designing) changes to landscaped areas, either for aesthetic or practical purposes.

Landscape Designer:The professional who plans and develops landscape projects, usually at a residential or small commercial level with the major design impetus on plantings. Landscape designers typically have less schooling than Landscape Architects and are not licensed.

Landscape Plan:A completed landscape design, detailing all elements for the new landscape. This usually takes the form of a drawing on paper.

Landscape Fabric: Textile used to suppress weeds, keep aggregate from sinking into mud, and to protect French drains from silt.

Lime: Calcium material used to raise the pH in soil, which will make it less hospitable to moss.

Liner: A water tight HDPE material used underneath ponds, streams and waterfalls in water features.

– M –

Mass Plantings:Using many plantings of the same variety to fill in an area in the landscape. This can lower maintenance and water use in the garden.

Materials List:Compiled list of all materials needed to install the landscape design.

Microclimate: Variations in temperature and growing conditions based on in elevation, sunlight, drainage, or wind as seen in your own yard.

Minimalism:Using the smallest number of plants, plant varieties, hardscape materials and other elements needed to accomplish the goal for the landscape design. This aesthetic is usually associated with modern and low maintenance landscape design.

Mixed Border:A flowerbed with a mix of different plants such as flowering perennials and shrubs.

Modernism:Modern landscape design is characterized by clean lines, clear borders between elements, mass plantings, and minimalism.

Moongate:This is a circular aperture in a wall or fence, most often seen in Chinese or Japanese gardens.

Mortar: A mix of cement, sand, and water that is used in stone masonry for setting stones and joints.

Mulch: A layer of compost or bark dust applied at the base of a plant.

Mossery:A mass planting of moss.

– N –

Native Plant: A plant that was present in a geographic location before people started changing the landscape.

– O –

Orchard:A place for growing fruit trees, can be within a larger landscape.

Orientation:How the garden or a garden element is arranged in relationship to an existing or new feature or to a direction.

Organic Lawn Care:Maintaining a lawn without the use of chemical herbicides, pesticides, or fertilizers.

Ornamental grasses: Grasses that are not mowed but grown in landscapes as perennials.

(Video) Landscape Architecture Design Terms

– P –

Patio:This is a partially open sided relaxation or recreation area that adjoins a dwelling, used for entertaining, outdoor dining and simply enjoying the outdoor environment.

Pavers: Precast concrete pieces that are used to create patios and walkways.

Pea Gravel: Small round gravel.

Perennial:Plants that provide seasonal interest and then die back in the winter. Annuals do not come back the following season, but perennials do.

Perennial Rye: Cold season grass that is the most common turf grass in Portland, OR and the rest of the PNW.

Pergola:An open roofed structure over a patio or other landscape feature.

Pesticide: A chemical used to control insects.

Planter:An ornamental container for growing plants.

Pondless: A water feature with no true pond, the water basin is below grade and often hidden by round rock.

Privacy Screen: Fences, trellises, or shrubs used to block the view of a certain area or view.

Pruning: Cutting parts of a plant off to control size, health and appearance.

PVC Pipe: Kind of pipe used in most irrigation systems.

– Q –

Quarter Minus (1/4-): Basalt aggregate ranging in size from 1/4” down to dust. The most common landscape gravel in the PNW.

– R –

Rain Garden: Area of the landscape designed to handle rain water until it can soak into the ground.

Rain Chain: A chain that controls water as it travels from a roof gutter to the ground.

Raised Bed (aka Raised Garden Bed): Garden structure that creates a planting area that is contained and higher than the surrounding grade.

Rendering (3D):A 3 dimensional perspective of a landscape design.

Retaining Wall: Structure made of wood, concrete, paving stones, bricks or other materials for stabilizing slopes and preventing excessiveerosion.

Rill:Narrow watercourse.

Rock Garden:Creating a garden feature consisting primarily of stones with plantings that complement and can thrive in the rocky environment.

Rotor: Sprinkler head style that rotates a stream of water across an area.

Rotary Nozzle: A nozzle that goes on a head and creates streams of water that rotate across an area.

– S –

Scale:On a landscape design the scale indicates how space on the plan relates to space in the actual garden. Also refers to the relationship between sizes of specific elements in the landscape.

Screening Plantings:Trees or shrubs used to provide privacy, block a view, or as a natural boundary or barrier.

Setback: Space around your home or along property lines where there are restrictions on what can be installed or built.

Shocking: Damage sometimes manifest after a plant is transplanted.

Shrubs:Low woody plants, usually with multiple shoots or stems emanating from their bases.

Site:The space of ground to receive landscaped improvements.

Site Analysis:The act of ascertaining features inherent to a site that must be accounted for in the landscape design.

Sketch:A rough drawing showing key elements of a landscape plan.

Sod: Strips of grass that have been cut out of field and rolled up. They can then be unrolled and installed as a lawn.

Sod cutter: A machine used to cut grass out.

Specimen:This plant is grown by itself in a lawn or garden for its ornamental effect, rather than massed with other bedding or edging plants. Will usually be a focal point.

Sprinkler System: Underground network of controllers, valves, pipes, and heads that combine to water the landscape.

Steel edging: Most common landscape edging in Portland, usually a 1/8” by 4” by 20’ length.

(Video) Knowledge Bank- Landscape Terminology

Stepping Stones: Flat stones or concrete pavers set with large gaps to accommodate a natural stride, creating a rustic path.

– T –

Timer (Irrigation): Controller for a sprinkler system.

Transformer (Low Voltage Lighting): Converts 120V to 12V for powering a landscape lighting system.

Transplant: Moving a plant from one location to another.

Tree:A woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part. (Merriam-Webster)

Tsukubai: Small water feature derived from the concept of a Japanese hand washing station.

– U –

- V -

Variegation: A pattern of leaves that contains either white or yellow markings.

- W -

Wall Rock: Quarried basalt stones that are 5-75 lbs each.

Water Feature: Landscape element that features circulating water.

Weed:Any plant that is unwanted or considered to be a nuisance.

- X -

Xeriscaping- A way of landscaping using very little, or no water with drought-tolerant plants and more hardscaping.

- Y -

- Z -

Is there a landscape, term, phrase, or concept I missed? Leave a comment below and I will add it to the list!

Portland Landscape & Landscape Design Resources:

Oregon Landscape Contractor's Board. See if your landscaper is licensed before you hire!

Find a Landscaper on OLCA (Oregon Landscape Contractor Association.)

Portland’s Best Landscape Companies

Portland Landscaping on

Thumbtack's Top 10 Landscapers in Portland Oregon.

Top Landscaping Companies According To Yelp.

Portland Oregon Landscapers on Houzz (lots of pictures!)

Porch's Top Landscaping Companies Here.

Landscape Services on Craigslist.

Top Landscapers According to Expertise.

Top 150+ Landscapers on AngiesList (free signup required.)

HomeAdvisor's Best Landscapers in Portland.

Landscape Management's Top Grossing Landscape Companies (nationally.)

Lawn & Landscape's Top 100 (nationally.)

Landscape Cost Estimator from Manta.

Need A Portland Area Landscape Designer?

Best Plant Nurseries in Portland!

Recommended Places to Get Landscape Stone.

Best Tree Services and Arborists.

Deck and Fence Guys You Can Trust.


What are the parts of a landscape? ›

An aesthetic landscape design incorporates five key elements: line, form, texture, color and scale. The perfect balance of these design features appeals to the eye and brings harmony to a space.

What are the 5 types of landscape? ›

Five landscape types were initially identified: agrarian, salt marshes, woods, fishing lagoons and rivers (Figure 2).

What are the 3 main areas called in a landscape? ›

What Are The Three Parts Of A Landscape?
  • Greenscape: The greenscape comprises rolling grassy hills and slopes, wide open spaces covered with carpets of green, tree-lined pavements, and shady groves to design an attractive and eye-catchy landscape. ...
  • Hardscape: ...
  • Waterscape: ...
  • Line:
5 Aug 2022

What are landscape features called? ›

A natural landscape is made up of a collection of landforms, such as mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus. Lakes, streams, soils (such as sand or clay), and natural vegetation are other features of natural landscapes.

What are the 7 elements of landscaping design? ›

The principles of landscape design include the elements of unity, scale, balance, simplicity, variety, emphasis, and sequence as they apply to line, form, texture, and color. These elements are interconnected.

What are the 7 types of landscapes? ›

coastal landscapes • riverine landscapes • arid landscapes • mountain landscapes • karst landscapes. levee, and a flood plain or terrace.

What are the 10 landscapes? ›

Top 10 Hauntingly Beautiful Landscapes on Earth
  • Skógafoss, Iceland (above image)
  • Mount Bromo, Indonesia.
  • Grand Prismatic Spring , Yellowstone National Park, USA.
  • Chocolate Hills, Philippines.
  • Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, China.
  • Multnomah Falls, Oregon, USA.
  • Mont Saint-Michel, France.
  • Canola flower field , Luoping, China.
10 Aug 2016

What are the 6 elements of landscape design? ›

In many design professions, including Landscape Architecture, there are elements that form the foundation of all good design. For us, those six elements are line, form, sound, fragrances, color, and texture. Lines play a major role in any garden, whether actual or implied.

What are the 6 principles of landscape design? ›

You can create a visually pleasing landscape by following these six principles of design.
They are:
  • Balance.
  • Focalization.
  • Simplicity.
  • Rhythm and Line.
  • Proportion.
  • Unity.
5 Nov 2015

What is the vocabulary of landscape? ›

Any expanse of natural scenery that can be seen from one viewpoint is also called a landscape. The artistic meaning of landscape is the earliest, dating from the 1600s. Definitions of landscape. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view. type of: scenery.

What is the keyword for landscaping? ›

A Complete List of 150 Keywords
4tree service near me120,000
6landscapers near me107,000
108 more rows
19 Mar 2021

What is a landscape blueprint called? ›

Planting plan

A labeled diagram that shows the quantities, location, size, shape and color of specific plants to be used in the landscape.

What are the 4 values of landscapes? ›

In general, geographers divide the ways in which people value landforms and landscapes into four categories: • cultural value • spiritual value • aesthetic value • economic value. The aesthetic value of a landscape is closely linked to its beauty and uniqueness.

What are the basics of landscape design? ›

The principles are the fundamental concepts of composition—proportion, order, repetition, and unity—that serve as guidelines to arrange or organize the features to create an aesthetically pleasing or beautiful landscape.

What are the 5 elements of a natural landscape? ›

The Five Elements of Landscaping
  • Landscaping is comprised of five main elements: colour, line, texture, form and shape. ...
  • While all of the elements of landscaping are important, colour might be the most essential.
26 Jun 2019

What are the 5 major land features? ›

Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains are the four major types of landforms. Minor landforms include buttes, canyons, valleys, and basins. Tectonic plate movement under Earth can create landforms by pushing up mountains and hills.

What are the 8 categories of landscape plants? ›

Landscaping 101: Different Types of Plants
  • Biennials. Much less common than annuals and perennials, biennials live for two years, producing foliage the first year and flowers the next. ...
  • Bulbs. ...
  • Grasses, Rushes and Sedges. ...
  • Tropicals. ...
  • Evergreens. ...
  • Deciduous. ...
  • Aquatic Plants. ...
  • Vines.
28 Apr 2021

What are the two main types of landscapes? ›

Natural landscapes are considered to be environments that have not been altered by humans in any shape or form. Cultural landscapes, on the other hand, are environments that have been altered in some manner by people (including temporary structures and places, such as campsites, that are created by human beings).

What are the 4 basic types of landscape architecture practices? ›

The types of landscape architecture can be broken down into several disciplines:
  • Site Planning. This is how to use a piece of land most efficiently for its intended purpose. ...
  • Urban Design. ...
  • Land Development. ...
  • Parks and Recreation. ...
  • Ecological and Environmental Planning. ...
  • Heritage Conservation. ...
  • Related Article:
5 Oct 2018

What are landscape aesthetics? ›

Landscape aesthetics is defined as the enjoyment and pleasure felt through the observation of environmental scenery [13].

What are the 3 layers of space in a landscape composition? ›

You can use foreground, middleground, and background to add depth and dimension to the image. These are often used in landscape photography. But they are also useful in other genres of photography. Depth and dimension in any image add more interest in the eyes of the viewer.

What are the three major phases of a landscape project? ›

Creating a Landscape Plan in 3 Phases
  • Creating a Landscape Plan in 3 Phases.
  • Phase 1: Size & Layout.
  • Phase 2: Filling the Space.
  • Phase 3: Finishing Touches.
2 Jun 2020

What is the master principle of landscape design? ›

Design principles include unity, balance, transition, focalization, proportion, rhythm, repetition and simplicity. All these principles interact to yield the intended design.

What are the seven 7 fundamental principles of design? ›

The fundamental principles of design are: Emphasis, Balance and Alignment, Contrast, Repetition, Proportion, Movement and White Space. Design differs from art in that it has to have a purpose. Visually, this functionality is interpreted by making sure an image has a center of attention, a point of focus.

What are the 7 elements and 8 principles of design? ›

The seven principles of art and design are balance, rhythm, pattern, emphasis, contrast, unity, and movement. Use the elements of art and design—line, shape/form, space, value, color, and texture—to create a composition as a whole. The elements of art and design are the tools of visual artists.

What are the 8 elements of design? ›

All visual designs are composed of eight elements (Point, Line, Shape, Form, Tone, Texture, Color, and/or Text). These elements are combined and arranged to create a desired visual appearance.

What are landscape themes? ›

A theme unifies your landscape and guides your material and plant selections. It can be as simple as using consistent forms or shapes throughout your garden, or as complex as creating a relaxation garden.

What do you call a beautiful landscape? ›

scenic Add to list Share. Something scenic is lush and beautiful to look at, like a mountain range. A pretty sight can be called a beautiful scene, and you can refer to amazing, gorgeous sights as scenic.

What are the 6 types of blueprints? ›

What Are the Six Types of Construction Drawings?
  • Plans.
  • Interior and exterior elevations.
  • Building and wall sections.
  • Interior and exterior details.
  • Schedules and room finishes.
  • Framing and utility plans.

What are the parts of a landscape drawing? ›

All design, whether in the landscape, on a canvas or in a magazine, draws upon common tools of composition. These elements of design include mass, form, line, texture and color. In the landscape, they are used to transform space and create a unique experience.

What does PLA stand for in landscape architecture? ›

The American Society of Landscape Architects encourages all licensed landscape. architects to use the post nominal letters “PLA” after their names to denote licensure, an. abbreviation of the title “professional landscape architect.” The use of this common.

What is the most important principle in landscaping? ›

1. Unity. Unity is a basic principle of landscaping, and is the repetition and consistency of a design. Repetition is used to bring about unity in your design by repeating like elements which include plants and decor in the landscape.

What are the 6 fundamentals of design describe each? ›

Start with the six principles of design: balance, pattern, rhythm, emphasis, contrast, and unity. Just as instructional design models and methodologies shape your training strategy, so should these principles shape your basic visual strategy. By applying them, you can create high-impact visuals.


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